West African Journal of Orthodontics http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo <p>There is an urgent need to develop learning outcomes for Residents in orthodontics based on the analysis of the professional performance of an orthodontist. Once defined, this can be broken down into knowledge, skills and attitudes that must be imbibed.The skills must include clinical information gathering, treatment planning and procedures. The trainers must also ask the simple question of the teaching methods to adopt and the assessment tasks to find out whether the residents have achieved the intended outcomes within the context of their future professional role. Once our educational outcomes are clearly specified, then the decisions about teaching methods, course content, educational cum infrastructural environment,and assessment procedures are made in the context of these learning outcomes. According to Chadwick in 2004, 'the ability to reflect on our own actions, articulate what makes a successful performer and the desireto continually improve on that performance is, an essence, what lies at the heart of professionalism itself'. This is food for thought!</p> West African Journal of Orthodontics en-US West African Journal of Orthodontics 2315-9502 Evaluation of Orthodontic Residency Training Programme in Nigeria: Perils and Pitfalls from Residents’ Perspective http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo/article/view/67 <p><em><strong>Background:</strong></em> The orthodontic residency program is an intensive 5-6 years of dedicated academic, research and clinical&nbsp; training programme. Residents rarely get an opportunity to express anonymous opinions regarding the programme. More so, the two examining bodies may not be conversant with the problems residents encounter during training and <br>some of the shortcomings of the training programme from the residents’ perspective. The aim of the study was to assess residents’ perspective to the residency training programme and the challenges encountered.&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire based survey carried out among orthodontic residents from nine different postgraduate training institutions in Nigeria. The 1 4- item questionnaire was administered through a telephone conversation with respondents using closed and open ended options. Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.</p> <p><em><strong>Results:</strong></em> A total of 26 residents were interviewed across the country representing about 65% of the total sampled population of orthodontic residents in Nigeria. All respondents indicated they would be adequately prepared for unsupervised patient care after graduation. About 81% reported sufficient clinical based training while 26.9% were dissatisfied with the training. With respect to challenges faced, 92.3% felt that spending personal funds on patient care was a huge burden while 73.1% felt the junior residency period was too lengthy .</p> <p><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong></em> Orthodontic residents are exposed to sufficient clinical based training and are capable of taking up&nbsp;unsupervised orthodontic care after the programme although they are faced with challenges of poor infrastructure, and inadequate and irregular supply of orthodontic materials.</p> O A LAWAL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 5 2 5 9 Buccolingual Inclination of Posterior Teeth in Untreated Adults with Unilateral Tooth Loss: A CBCT Investigation http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo/article/view/68 <p><em><strong>Background:</strong></em> T o evaluate the buccolingual inclinations of posterior teeth in untreated adults with and without unilateral, partial edentulism by using CBCT images.<br><em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> One hundred and one untreated adults (47 males, 54 females), who had CBCT images (average age: 49.79 years) participated in the study . T wo sub-groups of patients were considered: fully dentate patients and patients with loss only of the first molar. The images were oriented according to the long axis of the tooth and visualized in coronal slices. Dental landmarks were used to evaluate the buccolingual inclination of the second permanent maxillary and mandibular molars.Right mandibular second molars of the subjects with the first mandibular molar absent appeared to be approximately 1 4° more inclined in lingual direction than those of the other subjects. There was no significant difference related to gender.<br><em><strong>Results:</strong></em> The buccolingual inclination of the second mandibular molar on the edentulous side is greater than the buccolingual inclination of the second maxillary molar on the edentulous side. The inclination of the second right mandibular molar shows a significant difference between the group of fully dentate patients and the group of patients with a first molar absent (p=0.001); the angle Ay(MMd2)r/MdP being more closed in partially toothed subjects (86.7°). In other words, only the second right mandibular molar has a more pronounced bucco-lingual inclination<br><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </em>There exists a significant increase of the lingual tilting of mandibular molars adjacent to the sites of the partial edentulism. Correction of this inclination will therefore be necessary to maintain a certain degree of Wilson's curve at the end of orthodontic treatment to meet physiological needs and stability .</p> Ahia Monique Lydie Beugre-Kouassi J S Diouf Karamoko S Ouattara J Beugre A Aka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 5 2 10 19 Occlusal Characteristics of Patients Treated in the Orthodontic Department of the Department of Odontology http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo/article/view/69 <p><em><strong>Background:</strong></em> The objective of this study was to determine the occlusal characteristics of the patients treated in the dentofacial orthopedics department of the Department of Odontology of Dakar.<br><em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out, based on the files of patients who came to the Dentofacial Orthopedics Department for consultation. Patients who had not received prior orthodontic treatment were included in this study . On each selected file, sociodemographic data as well as clinical data constituted by the reason of the consultation and the occlusion in the 3 dimensions were collected. A data entry form was set up with the epi info 7 and analyzed using the epi 2000 software. A t test on independent sample was used to compare the age-sex variable.<br><em><strong>Results:</strong></em> 109 cases were selected in a total of 222 identified. The average age was 9 years ± 2.27 . 4 1% of patients were in Angle class I against 34% in class II and 1 4% in class III. Vertically , 39.81% of the patients were in normocclusion while 25% had a deep overbite and 34% an open bite. Regarding the transversal dimension, 91.7 4% of the patients had a normocclusion whereas 3% and 4% presented respectively a posterior crossbite and a scissors bite.<br><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </em>These occlusal features are different from those found in other geographical areas. The ethnicity, the age of the patients and the method of recording occlusal data may explain these disparities. It is necessary to take into account the occlusal characteristics in order to undertake an adequate interceptive treatment.</p> K Diop-Ba J S Diouf A Badiane M Diouf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 5 2 21 25 A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Knowledge, Social Perceptions and Willingness to undergo Orthodontic Treatment amongst Adults http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo/article/view/71 <p>V<em><strong>Background:</strong></em> Orthodontic challenges are an important consideration in a person's total well-being. Fortunately , there has been an increase in the number of orthodontists and hospitals attending to orthodontic problems across Nigeria. This may be expected to translate to an increase in awareness. The present study , therefore, assessed the knowledge, social perceptions and the willingness of adults to undergo orthodontic treatment.<br><em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> One hundred and ninety-seven adults were evaluated in this cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire based study . A questionnaire with 12 close ended questions was adopted from a previous study<br><em><strong>Results:</strong></em>The majority (1 49, 75.6%) of respondents were female with a mean age of 23.86 years (SD =3.36592). About half of the respondents (97 , 49.2%) had knowledge of orthodontic treatment. Of these, a greater percentage (7 4, 88.3%) have not previously had orthodontic treatment. Only 23 respondents reported having had orthodontic treatment in the past. Most of the respondents (152,77 .2%) did not believe that they required orthodontic treatment. Amongst the 22.8% that believed they needed orthodontic treatment, majority were females. Of those who felt they needed treatment, poor awareness (30.5%) and cost factor (1 7 .8%) accounted for the reason they had n't as yet sought treatment.<br><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </em>There is an increase in awareness and knowledge of orthodontics among adults. This ref lects in their increased demand for treatment. However, cost was shown to be a major limitation. The inclusion of orthodontic treatment as part of the health insurance policy of the Nigerian government is recommended.</p> N Folaranmi A Ndu E Akaji A Okeke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 5 2 26 30 A Study relating Taurodontism with Hypodontia and Maxillary Lateral Incisor Microdontia http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo/article/view/72 <p><em><strong>Background:</strong> </em>Certain dental anomalies may coexist in the same patient. Early diagnosis of one anomaly can alert the professional to the possible development of other associated anomalies in the same patient or family , making early diagnosis and timely orthodontic intervention possible. It aims to compare prevalence of hypodontia and maxillary <br>lateral incisor microdontia in a group of children with and without T aurodontism.<br><em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> A retrospective study conducted at Orthodontic Unit, Lagos State University T eaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Orthopantomographs and dental casts of 47 subjects with taurodontism of at least one mandibular first or second permanent molar as an isolated trait were selected. A control group matching the case group for sex and for age at which the records were taken was selected from the same records. These study casts were assessed for microdontia of the maxillary permanent lateral incisors and orthopantomographs were assessed for hypodontia of permanent teeth.Results: The incidence of microdontia of the maxillary permanent lateral incisor was higher (p=0.002) in patients with taurodontism (31.9%, n = 15) when compared to the control group with 6.4% (n = 3).Hypodontia was present in 1 4(29.8%) of subjects with taurodontism while 8(1 7%) of the subjects had hypodontia in the control group (p=0. 1 43).<br><em><strong>Conclusions:</strong></em> There was a significant association between mandibular molar taurodontism and microdontia of maxillary lateral incisors, with increased occurrence of hypodontia of permanent teeth in patients with mandibular molar&nbsp;taurodontism.</p> T A Yemitan O A Ajisafe B O Ogunbanjo V E Adediran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 5 2 31 36 Orthodontic Residency Training in Nigeria http://wajo.oauife.edu.ng/index.php/wajo/article/view/74 <p><em><strong>Background:</strong></em>In Nigeria, residency training in orthodontics dates back as early as 1 986 with initial accreditation of only one institution granted by the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria. Presently however, there are about ten institutions where orthodontic treatment is offered and most of them are accredited to train orthodontists.</p> <p><em><strong>Results:</strong></em> In spite of the increase in the number of accredited training institutions, there is still a dearth of orthodontic practitioners with the ratio being 1:3.86 million Nigerians. Sadly , the total population of Nigerian orthodontists represents only 1% of all dentists in Nigeria.&nbsp;The challenges of residency training in Nigeria are numerous. There is therefore a need to reexamine the objectives of training, reevaluate the programme as a whole and implement restructuring in order to improve the standard, make the programme more relevant to the need of the society , thus ensuring that graduates of the programmes are up-to-date and at par with their counterparts from across the globe and with the rest of the world. <br><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </em>while the purpose of residency training in orthodontics has largely been achieved in Nigeria, a lot remains to be done to propel it beyond its original state so as to make it compare favourably with similar dental postgraduate training programmes in other parts of the world. There is therefore a call for action for all stakeholders to propel the fortunes of <br>residency dental training in Nigeria.</p> O O Sanu M O Akeredolu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-03 2020-02-03 5 2 37 43